Over the last few decades, in criminal proceedings, the investigators have been increasingly using forensic biometrics techniques in order to determine or verify the identity of a subject through the automated use of physiological parameters. Voice print is a particularly important technique to identify a person. The urge to utilize voice-tracking in investigations has gradually increased due to an increase in the number of devices employed for remote communication and via the Internet; consequently, techniques aimed at making the user's identity anonymous have improved. This is not enough, though. Islamic terrorist acts and cyber threats are leading the state response to a retreat to unprecedented forms of crime prevention, with the main purpose of neutralizing the offense and prevent devastating damages from happening. Among the new preventive investigation techniques, forensic linguistics plays a fundamental role for intelligence bodies of governments.
Despite the centrality of linguistics and forensic phonetics in criminal investigations, national legislation appears to be not very avant-garde: in spite of what happens in other countries, no regulation of phonic investigation exists, thus causing a hindrance to the procedural use of the acquired evidence.
This paper provided an overview of the state of the art of repressive and preventive vocal investigations in Italy, identifying possible solutions de jure condendo.